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The Division of Intramural Research Programs (IRP) is the internal research division of the NIMH. Over 40 research groups conduct basic neuroscience research and clinical investigations of mental illnesses, brain function, and behavior at the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. Learn more about research conducted at NIMH.
Mental illnesses are common in the United States. It is estimated that more than one in five U.S. adults live with a mental illness (57.8 million in 2021). Mental illnesses include many different conditions that vary in degree of severity, ranging from mild to moderate to severe. Two broad categories can be used to describe these conditions: Any Mental Illness (AMI) and Serious Mental Illness (SMI). AMI encompasses all recognized mental illnesses. SMI is a smaller and more severe subset of AMI. Additional information on mental illnesses can be found on the NIMH Health Topics Pages.
The data presented here are from the 2021 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). For inclusion in NSDUH prevalence estimates, mental illnesses include those that are diagnosable currently or within the past year; of sufficient duration to meet diagnostic criteria specified within the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV); and, exclude developmental and substance use disorders.
The HIP Network is a voluntary public/private partnership established to increase both employers' and employees' awareness of the hazard of heat illness and the importance of heat illness prevention measures to prevent fatalities and serious illnesses in California workplaces.
HIP Network members work together to help prevent heat illness in workplaces throughout California in partnership with the Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) by providing timely and essential information to employers and employees.
Diagnosing mental illness isn't a straightforward science. We can't test for it the same way we can test blood sugar levels for diabetes. Each condition has its own set of unique symptoms, though symptoms often overlap.
People with mental illness deserve help, not handcuffs. Yet people with mental illness are overrepresented in our nation's jails and prisons. We need to reduce criminal justice system involvement and increase investments in mental health care.
During extremely hot and humid weather, your body's ability to cool itself is challenged. When the body heats too rapidly to cool itself properly, or when too much fluid or salt is lost through dehydration or sweating, body temperature rises and you or someone you care about may experience a heat-related illness. It is important to know the symptoms of excessive heat exposure and the appropriate responses. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides a list of warning signs and symptoms of heat illness, and recommended first aid steps. Some of these symptoms and steps are listed below.
Many foodborne illnesses are caused by bacteria, like Campylobacter, E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella. Each year in the United States, more than 100,000 people go to the hospital and 3,000 people die because of foodborne illnesses.1
The Division of Behavioral Health (DBH) manages programs and services for individuals who need help with their mental illnesses and/or substance use. Services available are prevention, education, evaluation, intervention, treatment, and rehabilitation. Here individuals and families seeking services can find the help they need. Most prevention and treatment services are provided by programs in the community through organizations which are contracted by the DBH to do so. These programs must meet federal and state requirements in order to provide mental illness and substance use treatment services. Please note that not all organizations providing these services in the community are contracted with the DBH.
The Division of Behavioral Health (DBH) partners with the Department of Corrections (DOC) and other organizations to increase awareness and improve the delivery of criminal justice services to individuals with substance use disorders and/or mental illness. The Division seeks to promote more successful outcomes and establish continued care in institutions and communities through justice-involved treatment initiatives such as the Substance Awareness Traffic Offender Program (SATOP), the Justice Reinvestment Initiative (JRI), Community Mental Health Liaisons (CMHL), Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT), Vivitrol Pre-release projects, the DMH/DOC Oversight Team and regional oversight meetings with DOC and community treatment providers.
Three distinct illness trajectories have been described so far for people with progressive chronic illnesses (fig 1)2-6: a trajectory with steady progression and usually a clear terminal phase, mostly cancer; a trajectory (for example, respiratory and heart failure) with gradual decline, punctuated by episodes of acute deterioration and some recovery, with more sudden, seemingly unexpected death; and a trajectory with prolonged gradual decline (typical of frail elderly people or people with dementia).
In Hippocrates' day, the physician who could fore-tell the course of the illness was most highly esteemed, even if he could not alter it.24 Nowadays we can cure some diseases and manage others effectively. Where we cannot alter the course of events we must at least (when the patient so wishes) predict sensitively and together plan care, for better or for worse.
If you served in the Southwest Asia theater of military operations, you may suffer from illnesses or other conditions that we assume are related to service in this region. We call these presumptive diseases. Find out if you can get disability compensation or benefits.
Disability Insurance (DI) is a part of the State Disability Insurance (SDI) program. It provides partial wage replacement benefits to eligible California workers who are unable to work due to a non-work-related illness, injury, or pregnancy. SDI contributions are paid by California workers through employee payroll deductions.
Disability is an illness or injury, either physical or mental, which prevents you from performing your regular and customary work. Disability also includes elective surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, or other related medical conditions.
The FDA has produced a video that shows what FDA does to ensure the food supply is safe and how we identify and remove FDA regulated food products from the market that are causing people to get sick. It explains each step of the outbreak investigation and how CDC, FDA, and state public health partners work together to respond to foodborne illness using science and modern technologies such as whole genome sequencing.
Your body normally cools itself by sweating. During hot weather, especially when it is very humid, sweating just isn't enough to cool you off. Your body temperature can rise to dangerous levels and you can develop a heat illness.
Most heat illnesses happen when you stay out in the heat too long. Exercising and working outside in high heat can also lead to heat illness. Older adults, young children, and those who are sick or overweight are most at risk. Taking certain medicines or drinking alcohol can also raise your risk.
Many individuals who develop substance use disorders (SUD) are also diagnosed with mental disorders, and vice versa.2,3 Although there are fewer studies on comorbidity among youth, research suggests that adolescents with substance use disorders also have high rates of co-occurring mental illness; over 60 percent of adolescents in community-based substance use disorder treatment programs also meet diagnostic criteria for another mental illness.4
The brain continues to develop through adolescence. Circuits that control executive functions such as decision making and impulse control are among the last to mature, which enhances vulnerability to drug use and the development of a substance use disorder.3,24 Early drug use is a strong risk factor for later development of substance use disorders,24 and it may also be a risk factor for the later occurrence of other mental illnesses.25,26 However, this link is not necessarily causative and may reflect shared risk factors including genetic vulnerability, psychosocial experiences, and/or general environmental influences. For example, frequent marijuana use during adolescence can increase the risk of psychosis in adulthood, specifically in individuals who carry a particular gene variant.26,27
It is also true that having a mental disorder in childhood or adolescence can increase the risk of later drug use and the development of a substance use disorder. Some research has found that mental illness may precede a substance use disorder, suggesting that better diagnosis of youth mental illness may help reduce comorbidity. One study found that adolescent-onset bipolar disorder confers a greater risk of subsequent substance use disorder compared to adult-onset bipolar disorder.28 Similarly, other research suggests that youth develop internalizing disorders, including depression and anxiety, prior to developing substance use disorders.29
NIDA. 2022, September 27. Part 1: The Connection Between Substance Use Disorders and Mental Illness. Retrieved from -reports/common-comorbidities-substance-use-disorders/part-1-connection-between-substance-use-disorders-mental-illness
NIDA. \"Part 1: The Connection Between Substance Use Disorders and Mental Illness.\" National Institute on Drug Abuse, 27 Sep. 2022, -reports/common-comorbidities-substance-use-disorders/part-1-connection-between-substance-use-disorders-mental-illness
NIDA. Part 1: The Connection Between Substance Use Disorders and Mental Illness. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. -reports/common-comorbidities-substance-use-disorders/part-1-connection-between-substance-use-disorders-mental-illness. September 27